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Wan Ilma Dewiputri and Tibor Auer (2013)

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Neurofeedback: Implementations and Applications

Malays J Med Sci. 20(5):5--15.  (export entry)


Neurofeedback (NFB)allows subjects to learn how to volitionally influence the neuronal activation in the brain by employing real-time neural activity as feedback. NFB has already been performed with electroencephalography (EEG) since the 1970s. Functional MRI (fMRI), offering a higher spatial resolution, has further increased the spatial specificity. In this paper,we briefly outline the general principles behind NFB, the implementation of fMRI-NFB studies, the feasibility of fMRI-NFB, and the application of NFB as a supplementary therapy tool.