1b - Using Optical Neuro-Stimulation with Light-Sensitive Ion Channels and Pumps for Closed-Loop Neuro-Control
The goal of this project is to design feedback controlled optical neuro-stimulation systems for the closed loop control of networks of biological neurons. Building on recent progress in optical neuro-stimulation using light sensitive ion channels and pumps. We will examine the potential of this approach in neuronal cultures grown on multi-electrode arrays.
Light sensitive ion channels and pumps enable optical excitation and suppression of impulse activity in neurons with high temporal and spatial resolution (Nagel et al. 2003, Boyden et al. 2005, Zhang et al. 2007). This approach promises means to externally control complex collective activity states in spatially extended networks of neurons. However, in an interacting network, optical stimulation will generally interfere in a highly nonlinear manner with the networks’ intrinsic dynamics, shaped by the neurons’ synaptic interactions. Because of this, feedback-controlled stimulation systems, in which optical excitation and inhibition of targeted neurons is applied conditional on current and previous activity patterns, are very promising candidate architectures to achieve control of dynamic network states. To explore the rational design of such closed-loop systems neuronal cell culture systems appear most suitable. They exhibit well characterized collective activity states, e.g. avalanche states and persistent states for which substantial theoretical understanding of the underlying collective dynamics has been achieved (Levina et al. 2007, Hansel & Mato 2001), and can be grown on Multi-Electrode Arrays (MEAs) enabling the simultaneous electrical recording of distributed activity patterns.
Fig. SP1b) A Multi-Electrode-Array (MEA) under optical observation. B Micrograph of a primary hippocampal cell culture grown on a MEA. Dots represent recording electrodes. C Example of a multi channel recording.
Is part of Section 1